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Electrical semiconductor characterization
Luminescence dating, research, dosimetry and more
Free radical measurements in life science and biomedical applications
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer lifetime measurement device
State of the art system for topographic electrical characterization of multicrystalline bricks in fabs with high throughput....
Production integrated high speed wafer mapping of carrier lifetime. Single wafer topograms in less than one second a wafer.
Low cost table top lifetime measurement system for characterization of a variety of different silicon samples at different...
Mono- and Multi-crystalline wafer and brick lifetime measurement device
Flexible OEM unit for lifetime measurements at a variety of different samples ranging from mono- to multicrystalline silicon...
Microwave Detected Photo Induced Current Transient Spectroscopy
The minority carrier life time is sensitive for all kinds of electrically active defects in semiconductors and is therefore...
MDP is an advanced technology with a so far unsurpassed combination of sensitivity, speed and resolution for fab and lab...
benchtop PID test for solar wafers and mini-modules
portable in field PID tester for solar modules
user friendly and advanced operating software
The PIDcon devices are designed to investigate the PID susceptibility for production monitoring of solar cells as well as tests...
Learn more about the reasons for PID and the how the susceptibility of solar cells, mini modules and encapsulation materials can...
For ultra-fast crystal orientation and rocking curve measurements
Flexible diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega Scan orientation determination
Smart diffractometer for ultra-fast Omega-scan of small samples.
Robust XRD equipment for fully automated in-line testing & alignment
for blanks, wafers & bars (AT, SC, TF, etc.)
three generations of X-ray engineers
in industrial production, R&D and more
discover the most convenient way of measuring orientation of single crystals
The microelectronic industry drives present global technological developments. It is one reason for the success of information...
Solar Energy is one of the key elements for the energy revolution that is currently taking place all over the world. In the last...
Research and development is the driving force for the expanding market for semiconductor products in the PV and microelectronic...
The impact of the development of the crystal growth methods on modern technology is often underestimated. We use products...
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Many lifetime measuring methods as QSSPC, µPCD or CDI, as well as MDP suffer from an anomalous high measured lifetime at very low injections. This effect is due to trapping centers in the sample. These trapping centers are very important, in order to understand the behavior of carriers in the material and can also have an effect on solar cells. Hence it is desirable to measure the trap density and the activation energy of these trap centers with a high resolution.
With the MDPmap and MDPingot it is possible to measure the photoconductivity as well as the minority carrier lifetime with one measurement and fully automated in a wide injection range. A clever algorithm allows the determination of the trap concentration in the sample.
From the injection dependent lifetime curve the lifetime at low injection τLLI can be determined and the photoconductivity is fitted with the slightly modified model of HORNBECK and HAYNES. The trapping density NT and the activation energy EA are the fitting parameters.
First measurement results were obtained on mc- and Cz-Si wafers and a correlation between the trap density and the dislocation density could be confirmed.
MDPmap allows to measure injection dependent photoconductivity and lifetime curves with a high resolution, so that the trap density and activation energy of trapping centers can be determined. With this it is possible to investigate the origin of traps and there influence on for example the efficiency of solar cells.
For more information read: J. A. Hornbeck and J. R. Haynes, Physical Review 97, 311-321 (1955) D. Macdonald and A. Cuevas, Applied Physics Letters 74, 1710 - 1712 (1999) N. Schüler, T. Hahn, K. Dornich, J.R. Niklas, 25th PVSEC Valencia (2010) 343-346
Low cost table top lifetime measurement system for characterization of a variety of different silicon samples at different preparation stages, without built-in automatization. Optional hand operated z-axis for thicker samples up to 156 mm bricks....